doRedundancyAnalysis(.object = NULL)



An R object of class cSEMResults resulting from a call to csem().


A named numeric vector of correlations. If the weighting approach used to obtain .object is not "PLS-PM" or non of the PLS outer modes was mode B, the function silently returns NA.


Perform a redundancy analysis (RA) as proposed by Hair et al. (2016) with reference to Chin (1998) .

RA is confined to PLS-PM, specifically PLS-PM with at least one construct whose weights are obtained by mode B. In cSEM this is the case if the construct is modeled as a composite or if argument .PLS_modes was explicitly set to mode B for at least one construct. Hence RA is only conducted if .approach_weights = "PLS-PM" and if at least one construct's mode is mode B.

The principal idea of RA is to take two different measures of the same construct and regress the scores obtained for each measure on each other. If they are similar they are likely to measure the same "thing" which is then taken as evidence that both measurement models actually measure what they are supposed to measure (validity).

There are several issues with the terminology and the reasoning behind this logic. RA is therefore only implemented since reviewers are likely to demand its computation, however, its actual application for validity assessment is discouraged.

Currently, the function is not applicable to models containing second-order constructs.


Chin WW (1998). “Modern Methods for Business Research.” In Marcoulides GA (ed.), chapter The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling, 295--358. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hair JF, Hult GTM, Ringle C, Sarstedt M (2016). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications.

See also