Calculate composite weights using generalized structure component analysis (GSCA). The first version of this approach was presented in Hwang and Takane (2004) . Since then, several advancements have been proposed. The latest version of GSCA can been found in Hwang and Takane (2014) . This is the version cSEMs implementation is based on.

```
calculateWeightsGSCA(
.X = args_default()$.X,
.S = args_default()$.S,
.csem_model = args_default()$.csem_model,
.conv_criterion = args_default()$.conv_criterion,
.iter_max = args_default()$.iter_max,
.starting_values = args_default()$.starting_values,
.tolerance = args_default()$.tolerance
)
```

- .X
A matrix of processed data (scaled, cleaned and ordered).

- .S
The (K x K) empirical indicator correlation matrix.

- .csem_model
A (possibly incomplete) cSEMModel-list.

- .conv_criterion
Character string. The criterion to use for the convergence check. One of: "

*diff_absolute*", "*diff_squared*", or "*diff_relative*". Defaults to "*diff_absolute*".- .iter_max
Integer. The maximum number of iterations allowed. If

`iter_max = 1`

and`.approach_weights = "PLS-PM"`

one-step weights are returned. If the algorithm exceeds the specified number, weights of iteration step`.iter_max - 1`

will be returned with a warning. Defaults to`100`

.- .starting_values
A named list of vectors where the list names are the construct names whose indicator weights the user wishes to set. The vectors must be named vectors of

`"indicator_name" = value`

pairs, where`value`

is the (scaled or unscaled) starting weight. Defaults to`NULL`

.- .tolerance
Double. The tolerance criterion for convergence. Defaults to

`1e-05`

.

A named list. J stands for the number of constructs and K for the number of indicators.

`$W`

A (J x K) matrix of estimated weights.

`$E`

`NULL`

`$Modes`

A named vector of Modes used for the outer estimation, for GSCA the mode is automatically set to "gsca".

`$Conv_status`

The convergence status.

`TRUE`

if the algorithm has converged and`FALSE`

otherwise.`$Iterations`

The number of iterations required.

Hwang H, Takane Y (2004).
“Generalized Structured Component Analysis.”
*Psychometrika*, **69**(1), 81--99.

Hwang H, Takane Y (2014).
*Generalized Structured Component Analysis: A Component-Based Approach to Structural Equation Modeling*, Chapman & Hall/CRC Statistics in the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
Chapman and Hall/CRC.